Coffee Consumption and C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Coffee contains bioactivecompounds with anti-inflammatory properties, and its consumption may reduce c-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a biomarker of chronic inflammation. A previous meta-analysis reported no overall association between blood CRP level and coffee consumption by modeling the coffee consumption in categories, with substantial heterogeneity.

However, the coffee cup volume was not considered. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis investigating the association between coffee consumption and CRP levels reported in previous observational studies. A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted by mixed-effects meta-regression models using the volume of coffee consumed as metric.

Eleven studies from three continents were identified using the PubMed database, totaling 61,047 participants.

Three studies with the largest sample sizes observed a statistically significant association between coffee and CRP levels, which was inverse among European and United States (US) women and Japanese men (1.3%-5.5% decrease in CRP per 100 mL of coffee consumed) and positive among European men (2.2% increase).

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Other studies showed no statistically significant associations. When all studies were combined in the dose-response meta-analysis, no statistically significant associations were observed among all participants or when stratified by gender or geographic location, reflecting the conflicting associations reported in the included studies. Further studies are warranted to explore these inconsistent associations.